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Writing an OAuth Provider Service

PHP Last year I showed how to use pecl/oauth to write a Twitter OAuth Consumer. But what about writing the other end of that? What if you need to provide OAuth access to an API for your site? How do you do it?

Luckily John Jawed and Tjerk have put quite a bit of work into pecl/oauth lately and we now have full provider support in the extension. It's not documented yet at, but there are some examples in svn. My particular project was to hook an OAuth provider service into a large existing Kohana-based codebase. After a couple of iterations this should now be trivial for others to do with the current pecl/oauth extension.

Step 1 - Create a Consumer Key registration page

In order for an application to communicate with your service you assign it what is essentially a user id and password. Except in OAuth terms these are known as the Consumer Key (CK) and shared secret. Your main job here is to make sure the CK and secret are unique and unguessable which means you need a decent entropy source. On Linux you have /dev/random, and the non-blocking potentially slightly weaker /dev/urandom mechanism. You can check how much entropy is available with:
cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail 
In general something like the following should give you a decent random string of characters that you can use for your CK and secret:
        function new_consumer_key() {
                $fp = fopen('/dev/urandom','rb');
                $entropy = fread($fp, 32);
                // in case /dev/urandom is reusing entropy from its pool, let's add a bit more entropy
                $entropy .= uniqid(mt_rand(), true);
                $hash = sha1($entropy);  // sha1 gives us a 40-byte hash
                // The first 30 bytes should be plenty for the consumer_key
                // We use the last 10 for the shared secret
                return array(substr($hash,0,30),substr($hash,30,10));
You can of course read more entropy and use a longer hash, like sha256 or whirlpool if you want longer keys.

Step 2 - The OAuth endpoints

It would probably be a good idea to skim the OAuth Spec at this point. We need two main end points for the OAuth sequence of requests. The first is called the "request token" end point. In my case I named it /v1/oauth/request_token. And since I am sliding this into a Kohana-based system, I wrote a controller (application/controllers/v1.php) which contained this in the constructor:
    try {
	$this->provider = new OAuthProvider();
	$this->provider->setParam('kohana_uri', NULL);  // Ignore the kohana_uri parameter
	$this->provider->setRequestTokenPath('/v1/oauth/request_token');  // No token needed for this end point
    } catch (OAuthException $E) {
	echo OAuthProvider::reportProblem($E);
	$this->oauth_error = true;

This makes the pecl/oauth extension do all the heavy lifting for us. We register a couple of callback functions. lookupConsumer will look up the CK and check if it is valid. timestampNonceChecker will check whether the timestamp of the request is sane and falls within the window of our Nonce checks. And this function will, of course, also check whether the provided Nonce has been used already to prevent replay attacks. And finally the tokenHandler callback will check whether a request or access token is valid. The setParam('kohana_uri',NULL) call tells the extension to ignore the kohana_uri parameter in the URLs because this was injected by an nginx rewrite rule and wasn't part of the original request. The lookupConsumer callback happens early on. My version looks like this:
        public function lookupConsumer($provider) {
                $consumer = ORM::Factory("consumer", $provider->consumer_key);
                if($provider->consumer_key != $consumer->consumer_key) {
                        return OAUTH_CONSUMER_KEY_UNKNOWN;
                } else if($consumer->key_status != 0) {  // 0 is active, 1 is throttled, 2 is blacklisted
                        return OAUTH_CONSUMER_KEY_REFUSED;
                $provider->consumer_secret = $consumer->secret;
                return OAUTH_OK;
Just a simple lookup in the data model and if found, the shared secret is attached so it can be used to check the signature of the request. So, now we need to write code for the different stages of the OAuth request. I have an oauth method with a switch:
        public function oauth($action=NULL) {
                if($this->oauth_error) return;

                switch($action) {
                case 'request_token':
                        $token = Token_Model::create($this->provider->consumer_key);
                        // Build response with the authorization URL users should be sent to
                        echo 'login_url=https://'.Kohana::config('config.site_domain').
Remember, the CK and the signature of the request has been checked already in the constructor, so by the time we get here, as long as $this->oauth_error is false, we can generate a request token and respond with a urlencoded set of parameters that include the unauthorized request token and secret we just generated along with a login url that the 3rd-party application will redirect the user to in order for them to authorize the request token to be used on their behalf.

Step 3 - Authorizing the request token

Back to your regular web UI, you now need to add a landing page for authorizing request tokens. Make sure the language on the page makes it clear to the user that they are authorizing a 3rd-party application to act on their behalf. It is a good idea to make them re-enter their password and explicitly click a button to do this authorization.

Step 4 - The Access token

Once the user has authorized the request token, the 3rd-party app needs to exchange the authorized request token for an access token. My switch case for this looks something like this:
        case 'access_token':
                $access_token = Token_Model::create($this->provider->consumer_key, 1);
                $this->token->state = 2;  // The request token is marked as 'used'
                // Now we need to find the user who authorized this request token
                $utoken = ORM::factory('utoken', $this->token->tok);
                if(!$utoken->loaded) {
                        echo "oauth error - token rejected";
                // And swap out the authorized request token for the access token
                $new_utoken = Utoken_Model::create(
                                           array('token'            => $access_token->tok,
                                                    'user_id'         => $utoken->user_id,
                                                    'application_id'=> $utoken->application_id,
                                                    'access_type'   => $utoken->access_type));
                echo "oauth_token={$access_token->tok}&oauth_token_secret={$access_token->secret}";

As you can see I have a couple of data models that deal with tokens here. Token_Model is the token itself while UToken_Model links users to tokens. A token is either a request token (type 0) or an access token, (type 1) and they can be in various states. The tokenHandler callback keeps track of whether a token is used correctly. It looks like this:
        public function tokenHandler($provider) {
                $this->token = ORM::Factory("token", $provider->token);
                if(!$this->token->loaded) {
                        return OAUTH_TOKEN_REJECTED;
                } else if($this->token->type==1 && $this->token->state==1) {
                        return OAUTH_TOKEN_REVOKED;
                } else if($this->token->type==0 && $this->token->state==2) {
                        return OAUTH_TOKEN_USED;
                } else if($this->token->type==0 && $this->token->verifier != $provider->verifier) {
                        return OAUTH_VERIFIER_INVALID;
                $provider->token_secret = $this->token->secret;
                return OAUTH_OK;

Once we have handed out an access token, the 3rd-party app can store this and sign API requests with the associated shared secret and send that signature along with the consumer key. As you can see in the above token handler, there is a revocation check. At any point the user can go in through the Web UI and revoke an access token for a specific 3rd-party application.

Step 5 - An actual API call

Now that we have completed the OAuth dance, we can write API end points. Because all the oauth magic happens in our controller constructor, we are left to just implement our own api logic in our api methods. Mine look something like this:
        public function user($cmd, $arg1=NULL, $arg2=NULL) {
                if(!$this->checkAccess()) return;
                $res = array();
                switch($cmd) {
                case 'settings':
                        foreach($this->user->settings as $key=>$val ) {
                                $res[$key] = $val;
The checkAccess function uses the access token to look up the user who authorized it and sets $this->user the same way your login flow will load the user once authenticated.

For the most part, the new OAuth Provider support in pecl/oauth takes the pain out of writing an OAuth Provider. It is smart about detecting the URL of the end points. You only have to indicate what the request_token (or 2-legged) endpoint is called, and it takes it from there. You can also pass the endpoint explicitly to checkOAuthRequest at each stage of the OAuth dance, but then you have to separate the steps more than I have here. I find this approach nice and compact and it lets me focus on the API part. I also like that it supports the OAuth ProblemReporting extension. This makes it a bit easier to track down problems. And by problems I mean signature mismatches. Everyone who has ever done anything with OAuth has struggled with them, and you will too. With the ProblemReporting extension you will get the raw string that the provider used to generate the signature. You just have to match that against what your consumer signed and you should be able to track down signature problems quickly.

Let me know if you do something interesting with the pecl/oauth extension. We may still be missing some use cases and right now there is decent momentum to fix things, so get in there and try it out.

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Display comments as Linear | Threaded

negom4ever on :

this is wonderful tutorial .. i read it 3 times and get a fantastic results and sure i put a
thanks all

Cristian Rodriguez on :

Can use something like this as well

function new_consumer_key() {
do {
$entropy = openssl_random_pseudo_bytes (32, $strong);
} while($strong === false);
$hash = sha1($entropy); // sha1 gives us a 40-byte hash
// The first 30 bytes should be plenty for the consumer_key
// We use the last 10 for the shared secret
return array(substr($hash,0,30),substr($hash,30,10));

Paul on :

I don't think this would have been available when you wrote this blog post, but there is now an OAuthProvider::generateToken method which could probably replace the new_consumer_key() function.

Sagar on :


What will be the differences in "Writing Provider" for OAuth 2.0??
Do you have updated provider for OAuth 2.0?

Please, help me i m in need to write Producer for my Webservices..

Thanking you with anticipation.

Sagar Sonawane

Catherine on :

Any chance you can show your codes for checkAccess() ?
I keep getting "401 Invalid auth/bad request" in that stage while the rest works fine.

Rasmus on :

checkAccess is quite simple. Here is a slightly simplified version:

private function checkAccess() {
$utoken = ORM::factory('utoken',$this->token->tok);
if(!$utoken->loaded) {
$this->jsonError('invalid access token');
return false;
if($utoken->access_type & Utoken_Model::Access_Type_Revoked) {
$this->jsonError('access token revoked');
return false;
if(!($this->user = $this->userLookup($utoken->user_id))) {
$this->jsonError('no such user');
return false;
$this->app = ORM::factory('app', $utoken->application_id);
if(!$this->app->loaded) {
$this->jsonError('no such app');
return false;
return true;

Catherine on :

Thanks for your quick response. However, that's quite different from what I expect.

Aren't we supposed to do $this->provider->checkOAuthRequest(); ?
Or you have done so in an earlier stage?

My code is quite similar to what this person wrote:

I've been stuck with the invalid signature error for the whole day and still can't figure out why. :(
Thanks again.

Rasmus on :

That's done in the constructor. Turn on debugging and look at the debug_sbs to work out signature problems. Everyone who works with OAuth 1.0 spends days scratching their heads over invalid signatures. If you have only spent 1 day on it so far, you haven't paid your dues yet. :)

Catherine on :

Here's the value in debug_sbs:

Here's the full debug info from OAuth:

One more question, how does the OAuth ProblemReporting extension work? I couldn't find any information on how to install/run it. Is it a server extension as well?

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